Distribución alélica del locus HLA-DRB1 en poblaciones nativas americanas. Evaluación de afinidades evolutivas intra e intercontinentales

  • María L. Parolín
  • Francisco R Carnesse

Resumen

RESUMEN Una de las características más sobresalientes del sistema HLA es su gran polimorfismo. Esta propiedad le ha conferido un papel destacable en los estudios sobre la variabilidad biológica humana. En la presente revisión hemos analizado la distribución alélica del locus HLA-DRB1 en 78 poblaciones, con el fin de estimar la diversidad genética, las distancias genéticas y las relaciones y afinidades biológicas establecidas entre los nativos americanos y otros grupos intercontinentales. Los indígenas americanos presentaron una reducida diversidad genética y compartieron diversas variantes alélicas con poblaciones del noreste asiático y Oceanía (HLADRB1* 0403, *0404, *0407, *0411, *0802, *0901, *1402, *1406 y *1602). A su vez, se observó la presencia de variantes que son características en sudamerindios (DRB1*0417, *08024, *0807 y *1413). Los nativos que presentaron un elevado aporte de genes no amerindios exhibieron en general, un aumento de la diversidad genética. Sin embargo, la introgresión de variantes provenientes de otros continentes parecería no estar distorsionando las relaciones de parentesco entre esos grupos, quienes por otra parte, evidenciaron una relativa asociación entre las distancias genéticas, geográficas y lingüísticas. Es interesante señalar que el dendrograma de distancias genéticas dividió a las poblaciones de Europa, Africa, Oceanía y a casi la totalidad de Asia, Siberia y América. En este último continente, la variabilidad biológica observada en las poblaciones analizadas, se explicaría principalmente, por la acción combinada de la deriva genética y el flujo génico.

 

ABSTRACT An outstanding characteristic of the HLA system is its high polymorphism, which confer it a significant place in the studies on human biological diversity. In the present review we have analysed the allelic distributions of HLADRB1 locus in 78 populations. The aims of this study is to estimate the genetic diversity, the genetic distance and the biological relations and affinities among Native Americans and other intercontinental human groups. The Aboriginal Americans presented a low genetic diversity and shared several allelic variants with the Northeast of Asia and Oceania populations (HLA-DRB1*0403, *0404, *0407, *0411, *0802, *0901, *1402, *1406 y *1602). In addition, the presence of variants that are characteristic in South-Amerindians was observed (DRB1*0417, *08024, *0807 y *1413). Some indigenous groups that presented a high contribution of non-Amerindian genes showed, in general terms, an increase in genetic diversity. However, the introgression of allelic variants that come from other continents do not seem to distort the relationships among those groups, which, on the other hand, demonstrated relative association among genetic, geographic and linguistic distances. It is interesting to note that the dendrogram of genetic distance divided populations of Europe, Africa, Oceania and almost all Asian continents from those of Sibera and America. In this last continent, the biological variability observed in the population analysed could be mainly explained by the combined action between genetic drift and gene flow.

Biografía del autor/a

Francisco R Carnesse

Citas

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2010-09-21
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