Historia poblacional, orígenes africanos y microevolución de los actuales afro-colombianos inferidos desde caracteres epigenéticos en la dentición decidua y permanente

  • Miguel E. Delgado-Burbano

Resumen

 

 

RESUMEN Setenta y cinco rasgos coronales no-métricos en la dentición permanente y decidua fueron registrados en 178 modelos dentales de individuos afro-colombianos pertenecientes a la comunidad de Guapi. Se recolectaron datos comparativos de 33 grupos africanos, otro grupo afro-estadounidense en la dentición permanente, en 4 grupos afro-americanos y otros 12 grupos de diferente ascendencia étnica, en la dentición decidua. Un análisis multivariado de componentes principales basado en frecuencias dentales, mostró que los afro-colombianos poseen gran afinidad genética con el Africa Sub-Sahariana, específicamente con grupos del Occidente, del Oriente y del Sur-Oriente africano. Este mismo análisis detectó una marcada divergencia dental con las poblaciones Norafricanas. Los resultados de esta investigación concuerdan con recientes estudios genéticos, basados en marcadores de ADNmt. A pesar que la dentición es evolutivamente conservativa y estable en una escala diacrónica corta, se concluyó que en 400 años de microevolución de los africanos en Colombia, su pool genético original se ha modificado levemente, debido a la influencia de presiones selectivas y flujo génico interétnico, con nativos americanos y grupos de origen caucásico. Se sugiere que los grupos afro-descendientes del Norte, Centro y Sur de América poseen historias poblacionales y evolutivas distintas, debido tanto a procesos de diferenciación fenotípica regional y local como a orígenes geográficos y étnicos diferentes.  

 

ABSTRACT Seventy-five crown non-metric traits in the permanent and deciduous dentition were recorded in 178 dental casts of Afro-Colombians from Guapi. Comparative data from 33 African groups, another African-American group in the permanent dentition, 4 African-American populations and other 12 human populations of different ancestry in the deciduous dentition were gathered. A multivariate analysis of principal components (PCA) based on dental trait frequencies, showed that Afro-Colombians have close genetic affinities with Sub-Saharan African populations, specifically with groups from Western, Eastern and South-Eastern Africa. This analysis also detected a strong dental divergence between North African groups and Afro-Colombians. These results agreed with recent mtDNA studies. The human dentition is evolutionarily conservative and stable, however, in 400 years of Africans evolution in Colombia. Selective pressures and inter-ethnic gene flow with Amerindian and Caucasian populations slowly modified the original African gene pool of the Afro-Colombian community. Finally, this study suggests that African-Americans from North, Caribbean-Central and South America have different evolutionary and populational histories due to local and regional processes of phenotypic differentiation, as well as to different geographic and ethnic origins.

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Publicado
2010-10-11
Sección
Trabajos Originales