Diversidad dental en los homínidos de la cueva superior de Zhoukoudian (Norte de China) y sus implicancias para la historia poblacional del este de Asia y el poblamiento temprano de las Américas

  • Miguel Delgado-Burbano

Resumen

RESUMEN Se comparó la incidencia de 16 rasgos dentales no-métricos en los homínidos de la Cueva Superior de Zhoukoudian (UC) (c. 34-29 Ka-Norte de China) con otras poblaciones del noreste y sudeste de Asia. Contrario a lo sugerido previamente, la morfología dental de UC posee un sorprendente parecido con el patrón sundadonte típico del sudeste de Asia. Gráficos de dispersión usando un análisis de componentes principales (ACP) ubican a UC cerca de otras poblaciones relacionadas con el sudeste de Asia indicando una afinidad sundadonte. Un análisis de distancias biológicas usando la distancia euclidiana al cuadrado (DE) seguida de una prueba de escalamiento multidimensional (MDS) produjo resultados muy similares. Una comparación entre UC y varias muestras sinodontes de las Américas no soporta el concepto de una afinidad cercana, producto de un supuesto origen común. Previos estudios sobre una posible relación entre el Asia Sudoriental y Sudamérica se ven corroborados en este estudio, debido a la notable afinidad existente entre diferentes muestras dentales de Sudamérica, Asia Sudoriental y los homínidos de UC. La afinidad sundadonte de la muestra de Zhoukoudian detectada en este análisis sugiere que las siguientes hipótesis deben reevaluarse: 1) UC se derivan de una antigua población sinodonte en el noreste de Asia. 2) Hace poco más de 30 Ka sundadonte evolucionó hacia sinodonte en el norte de China, Mongolia y/o el sur de Siberia. 3) Existe una continuidad sinodonte desde Zhoukoudian (34. Ka) hasta Dawenkou (6. Ka) en el norte de China. 4) Dado que UC posee características dentales sinodontes, debe presentar una estrecha relación con poblaciones recientes del noreste de Asia y todoslos nativos americanos pasados y presentes. Finalmente estos hallazgos contradicen el modelo de evolución local o de continuidad morfológico-regional para la historia poblacional del este de Asia y además sugieren que al menos una parte de los nativos americanos relativamente recientes con afinidad sinodonte, no tienen ninguna relación con la(s) población(es) ancestral(es) sundadonte(s) Australo-Melanesia(s) que pobló el sudeste de Asia y América en el Pleistoceno Tardío.

 

ABSTRACT The incidence of 16 dental non-metric traits in the Zhoukoudian Upper Cave hominids (UC) (c.34-29. Ka- North China), was compared with those from North-East and South-East Asian populations. UC hominids have an overwhelming resemblance with Sundadonty dental pattern typical of South-east Asia, contrary to previous suggestions. Scatterplots using principal component analysis (PCA) place the UC sample near South-east Asian populations indicating typical sundadonty. A Euclidean square distance analysis (ED) followed by multidimensional scaling (MDS) showed results similar to PCA. Comparisons between UC hominids and several sinodonty samples of the Americas do not support a close affinity caused by a supposed common origin. This study confirms the results of previous research about a possible close relationship between South-east Asia and South-America due to the clear affinity between different dental samples of South-America, South-east Asia and UC hominids. The sundadonty affinity for UC sample shown in this analysis suggests that the following hypothesis must be reevaluated: 1) UC is derived from an ancient sinodonty population in North-east Asia. 2) Around 30 Ka, sundadonty evolved into sinodonty in Northern China, Mongolia and/or Southern Siberia. 3) There exists a dental continuity from Zhoukoudian (34. Ka) to Dawenkou (6. Ka) in Northern China. 4) Since UC, have sinodont-like dental traits, it must present a close biological affinity with recent Northeast Asian populations and all, past and present native americans. Finally, these findings disagree with a local evolution or regional continuity hypothesis for the population history of East Asia and suggest that some post-middle-Holocene sinodonty Amerind populations do not have any relationship with the ancestral(s) sundadonty Australo-Melanesian(s) population(s) that settled South-east Asia and the Americas in Late Pleistocene.

 

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Publicado
2010-09-21
Cómo citar
Delgado-Burbano, M. (2010). Diversidad dental en los homínidos de la cueva superior de Zhoukoudian (Norte de China) y sus implicancias para la historia poblacional del este de Asia y el poblamiento temprano de las Américas. Revista Argentina De Antropología Biológica, 9(2), 77-103. Recuperado a partir de https://revistas.unlp.edu.ar/raab/article/view/250
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