Levaduras aisladas de mieles como antagonistas de mohos patógenos de cultivos

  • Alfonso Emanuel Carrizo Villoldo Cátedra de Microbiología General, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, UNJu, Jujuy, Argentina, C.P. 4600; CONICET
  • Carla Belén Carrizo INTA-IPAF Región NOA, Ruta Nacional N° 9 km 1763, Posta de Hornillos, Departamento Maimará, Jujuy, Argentina, C.P. 4622
  • Marcelo Rafael Benítez Ahrendts Cátedra de Microbiología Agrícola, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, UNJu, Jujuy, Argentina, C.P. 4600
  • Leonor Carrillo Cátedra de Microbiología Agrícola, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, UNJu, Jujuy, Argentina, C.P. 4600
Palabras clave: levaduras, mohos, patógenos, precosecha, poscosecha

Resumen

Se buscó el aislamiento de levaduras de muestras de miel de la Provincia de Jujuy, Argentina, con el objetivo de utilizarlas in vitro como antagonistas de mohos patógenos pre- y poscosecha, de diferentes cultivos de interés, como, cítricos, maíz, maní y caña de azúcar. Se utilizó miel, ya que la misma puede actuar como medio selectivo de cepas inocuas y tolerantes a distintos estrés abióticos, como bajo pH, elevada presión osmótica, presencia de fitoquímicos, entre otros. Se logró aislar un total de 15 levaduras de 25 muestras de mieles. Las levaduras fueron identificadas como: Candida parapsilosis, Zygosaccharomyces baili, Zygosaccharomyces mellis, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Tausonia pullulans, Lachancea thermotolerans, Lachancea fermentati, Torulaspora delbrueckii y Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Todos los géneros se encontraron descriptos como presentes en la miel, provenientes, ya sea, de fuentes primarias de contaminación o del ambiente circundante. De los aislamientos obtenidos se probó el antagonismo in vitro, por disminución del crecimiento micelial de los mohos: Penicillium italicum, P. ulaiense, Aspergillus parasiticus y Fusarium sacchari. Lachancea thermotolerans, fue el único aislamiento que presentó antagonismo hacia todos los mohos ensayados. Candida parapsilosis manifestó antagonismo hacia P. italicum; Lachancea fermentati hacia P. ulaiense; Z. mellis frente P. ulaiense y uno de los aislamientos de T. delbrueckii frente a P. italicum y P. ulaiense. Se podrían utilizar las levaduras antagonistas en futuros ensayos in vivo, en vistas al diseño de un biofungicida activo contra mohos patógenos de cultivos, en la etapa de producción a campo o durante el almacenamiento.

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Publicado
2020-12-07
Cómo citar
Carrizo Villoldo, A. E., Carrizo, C. B., Benítez Ahrendts, M. R., & Carrillo, L. (2020). Levaduras aisladas de mieles como antagonistas de mohos patógenos de cultivos. Revista De La Facultad De Agronomía, 119(2), 054. https://doi.org/10.24215/16699513e054