Riesgo de anomalías congénitas en grupos étnicos de Sudamérica / Risk of congenital anomalies in ethnic groups from South America

  • Maria I. Villalba Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Celular (IMBICE)
  • Hebe Campaña Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Celular (IMBICE)
  • Sandra C. Scala Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Celular (IMBICE)
  • Mariela S. Pawluk Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Celular (IMBICE)
  • Jorge S. López-Camelo Dirección de Investigación. Centro de Educación Médica e Investigaciones Clínicas (CEMIC)

Resumen

El objetivo del trabajo fue estimar el riesgo de defectos congénitos según condición étnica de los padres del recién nacido. Fueron seleccionados 20.940 neonatos con 10 anomalías congénitas específicas y un grupo similar de controles, clasificados según su condición étnica. Se estimaron los riesgos de las 10 anomalías congénitas aisladas mediante métodos de regresión logística, ajustando los riesgos por índices de propensión (Propensity Score) utilizando la prueba de Mantel-Haenszel. Los resultados del presente trabajo mostraron que en europeos latinos existe un mayor riesgo de tener un recién nacido con espina bífida, sindactilia 2-3 del pie e hipospadias; en judíos el riesgo mayor es para hipospadias; en nativos para microtia, labio leporino, polidactilia preaxial y atresia anal; en afrodescendientes para polidactilia postaxial e hipospadias y en árabes para espina bífida. En conclusión, en Sudamérica algunos grupos étnicos muestran un riesgo incrementado para ciertas anomalías congénitas, independientemente de la edad de los padres, el nivel socioeconómico y el número de embarazos, sugiriendo susceptibilidad de ciertos grupos étnicos para determinados defectos congénitos.

Palabras clave: defectos congénitos; ancestros; epidemiología; etnia

The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of congenital anomalies according to the ethnicity of the newborn’s parents. A sample of 20,940 newborns with 10 specific congenital anomalies was selected, together with a similar group of controls, and separated by ethnic group. The risks for the 10 isolated congenital anomalies were estimated by logistic regression methods, adjusting for Propensity Score using the Mantel-Haenszel test. The results of the present study showed that Latin Europeans have a high risk for spina bifida, syndactyly 2-3 of toes, and hypospadias; Jews for hypospadias; natives (Amerindian) for microtia, oral clefts, preaxial polydactyly and anal atresia; African descendants for postaxial polydactyly and hypospadias, and Arabs for spina bifida. In conclusion, inSouth America some ethnic groups have an increased risk for some congenital defects, which are not attributable to parental age, socioeconomic status or the number of pregnancies, suggesting that certain ethnic groups are more susceptible to specific birth defects.

Keywords: birth defects; ancestry; epidemiology; ethnicity

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Publicado
2014-10-26
Cómo citar
Villalba, M. I., Campaña, H., Scala, S. C., Pawluk, M. S., & López-Camelo, J. S. (2014). Riesgo de anomalías congénitas en grupos étnicos de Sudamérica / Risk of congenital anomalies in ethnic groups from South America. Revista Argentina De Antropología Biológica, 17(1), 19-27. Recuperado a partir de https://revistas.unlp.edu.ar/raab/article/view/1090
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