Evaluación de la diagénesis ósea mediante el uso de microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB): aproximaciones analíticas aplicables a muestras arqueológicas / An assessment of bone diagenesis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM): analytic approaches a

  • Gustavo Barrientos División Antropología, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo. Universidad Nacional de La Plata. La Plata. Argentina
  • Patricia L. Sarmiento
  • Paula E. Galligani

Resumen

El objetivo del presente trabajo es realizar una revisión de las aproximaciones analíticas aplicables al estudio de la diagénesis ósea -dentro del campo más amplio de la tafonomía- que se basan en el uso de la microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB). Para ello, se presenta a) una síntesis de los conocimientos actuales acerca de los procesos diagenéticos que afectan a la integridad histológica de los restos óseos, tanto humanos como faunísticos, en depósitos sedimentarios terrestres; b) una exposición abreviada de los principios generales de la microscopía electrónica, particularmente de la MEB y c) un comparación de las diferencias -en cuanto a requerimientos, información obtenible y ventajas/desventajas asociadas- entre los análisis centrados en los dos principales tipos de imágenes producidas por un MEB, es decir, las de electrones retrodispersados y las de electrones secundarios. Se concluye que, dada la disponibilidad relativamente amplia de esta tecnología, el factor crítico para una incorporación más activa delMEB en la investigación arqueológica y bioantropológica no es el acceso al equipamiento, sino la apropiada identificación de los problemas de investigación a resolver, así como la adecuada selección y ejecución de las técnicas de observación y análisis a emplear.

PALABRAS CLAVE hueso; alteración histológica; imágenes

The aim of this paper is to review analytic approaches to bone diagenesis based on the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In order to do this, we present a) a synthesis of current knowledge about diagenetic processes affecting the histological integrity of human and faunal skeletal remains in terrestrial sedimentary deposits; b) a brief description of the general principles of electron microscopy, particularly of SEM, and c) a comparison of the main differences -in terms of requirements, recoverable information, and associated pros and cons- between analyses centered on the use of either of the two main kinds of images produced by a SEM, i.e., backscattered electron images and secondary electron images. It is concluded that, given the relatively wide availability of this technology, the critical factor to a more active involvement of SEM in archaeological and bioanthropological research is not the access to equipment, but the correct identification of the research problems to be solved, as well as the proper selection and implementation of the observational and analytical techniques to be employed.

KEY WORDS bone; histological alteration; images

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Publicado
2015-12-17
Cómo citar
Barrientos, G., Sarmiento, P. L., & Galligani, P. E. (2015). Evaluación de la diagénesis ósea mediante el uso de microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB): aproximaciones analíticas aplicables a muestras arqueológicas / An assessment of bone diagenesis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM): analytic approaches a. Revista Argentina De Antropología Biológica, 18(2). Recuperado a partir de https://revistas.unlp.edu.ar/raab/article/view/2506
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