Factores de preservación diferencial de restos óseos humanos contemporáneos de la “colección Chacarita” (Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina)/ Factors of differential preservation of modern human bone remains from the “Chacarita collection”

  • Leandro Luna
  • Claudia Aranda
  • Solana Garcia Guraieb
  • Tamara Kullock
  • Alfonsina Salvarredy
  • Roberto Pappalardo
  • Paula Miranda
  • Hernán Noriega

Resumen

RESUMEN Numerosos agentes intrínsecos y extrínsecos afectan de diferentes formas los grados de preservación de restos óseos humanos. La observación de la forma e intensidad en las que tales factores inciden en las características del registro osteológico de una muestra contemporánea con información fehaciente de referencia (sexo, edad, fecha y causa de muerte), ofrece la posibilidad de aportar datos locales para contribuir a la comprensión de la compleja dinámica del proceso de descomposición cadavérica y preservación del esqueleto. En este trabajo se analizan y comparan estadísticamente variables contextuales (anegabilidad y saturación del terreno, alcalinidad y presencia de adipocira, de raíces de árboles y de envoltorio) y tafonómicas (porcentaje de completitud, índice de fragmentación y deterioro óseo) en 20 coxales humanos con objeto de analizar, desde una perspectiva osteológica, de qué forma la variación en el impacto de esos factores afecta los grados de preservación de los esqueletos. Se identifican tendencias que sugieren la acción de algunos agentes específicos, al mismo tiempo que la ausencia de asociación de numerosas variables aporta información relevante para contrastar con modelos previamente generados. Se describen algunas asociaciones estadísticas entre variables que afectan a los individuos femeninos y otras que indican una tendencia hacia la preservación ósea por parte de la acción de las raíces, en oposición a lo habitualmente planteado en las investigaciones tafonómicas; por último, se enfatiza la necesidad de considerar variables poco exploradas desde una perspectiva bioarqueológica, como la saturación del terreno, la presencia de algún tipo de envoltorio y la acción de la adipocira, como aspectos que afectan significativamente la preservación ósea y por lo tanto, el potencial del registro analizado para ofrecer información de interés osteológico.  

ABSTRACT Numerous intrinsic and extrinsic agents affect the degree of human bone preservation. The analysis of the influence of their action and intensity in the characteristics of an osteological reference sample (with reliable information on sex, age, date and cause of death in each skeleton) provides local data to understand the complex dynamics of cadaveric decomposition and skeletal preservation. This paper discusses the action of several contextual (land floodability and humidity saturation, alkalinity, presence of adipocere, roots and corpse wrapping) and taphonomic variables (bone damage, completeness and fragmentation) in 20 coxal bones in order to examine how they affect general bone preservation of the skeletons. The identified trends suggest the action of some specific agents, while the lack of association of many variables also provides interesting information to be compared with previous models. Specifically, statistical associations between variables that affect female individuals and others that indicate a protective action of roots on bone preservation (as opposed to what is usually stated in taphonomic research) are described. Finally, the need to consider some variables poorly analyzed in previous papers, such as the waterlogged terrain, the presence of some kind of wrapping and the action of adipocere, is stressed as an aspect that significantly improves knowledge about bone preservation.

Publicado on-line: 03/08/2012

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Publicado
2012-08-03
Cómo citar
Luna, L., Aranda, C., Garcia Guraieb, S., Kullock, T., Salvarredy, A., Pappalardo, R., Miranda, P., & Noriega, H. (2012). Factores de preservación diferencial de restos óseos humanos contemporáneos de la “colección Chacarita” (Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina)/ Factors of differential preservation of modern human bone remains from the “Chacarita collection”. Revista Argentina De Antropología Biológica, 14(2), 53-67. Recuperado a partir de https://revistas.unlp.edu.ar/raab/article/view/555
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