De reactivo biológico al animal sintiente: el bienestar animal como cambio de paradigma en la investigación biomédica y su impacto en los resultados

El animal sintiente: un cambio de paradigma

  • Fabricio Maschi Laboratorio de Animales de Experimentación (LAE), Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias. Universidad Nacional de La Plata
  • Cecilia Carbone Laboratorio de Animales de Experimentación (LAE), Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias. Universidad Nacional de La Plata
  • Hector Ricardo Ferrari Cátedra de Etología. Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo. Universidad Nacional de La Plata. Argentina.
Palabras clave: Animales de experimentación, bienestar animal, enriquecimiento ambiental, sintiencia

Resumen

El uso de animales como reactivos biológicos para investigación científica se ha justificado desde los inicios de la civilización, cuando solo servían para satisfacer las necesidades del hombre. El concepto de reactivo biológico ha cambiado al cobrar relevancia el bienestar animal, una problemática específica de la relación humano animal referida inicialmente a los animales de producción y que ha impactado en todos los usuarios de animales. Se logró avanzar en el conocimiento de las especies, sus necesidades y en la comprensión de su comportamiento. Con esta redefinición del animal surge un nuevo objeto de estudio para la ciencia: el estado del animal en sus intentos de lidiar con su entorno y de afrontar las demandas del ambiente. Como consecuencia, se han realizado enriquecimientos del ambiente sin suficientes estudios previos llevando
a la obtención de resultados erróneos. Por lo tanto, es imperativo trabajar con indicadores específicos de bienestar que permitan diagnosticar y remediar las condiciones de pobre bienestar. Los animales provistos a los investigadores deberían contar con certificaciones sobre la cepa, condiciones de crianza y, además, tipo y modalidad de enriquecimiento e indicadores de bienestar animal antes de iniciar su utilización. En el futuro, el bienestar animal no solo debe estar en la nota ética, sino que debe ser parte inexcusable de la sección metodológica de los estudios experimentales.

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Publicado
2019-06-19
Cómo citar
Maschi, F., Carbone, C., & Ferrari, H. R. (2019). De reactivo biológico al animal sintiente: el bienestar animal como cambio de paradigma en la investigación biomédica y su impacto en los resultados. Analecta Veterinaria, 39(1), 034. https://doi.org/10.24215/15142590e034
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