El método experimental en Antropología Biológica. Historia y actualidad en Argentina / The experimental method in Biological Anthropology. History and current status in Argentina

  • Evelia E. Oyhenart
  • María F. Cesani

Resumen

La práctica experimental en Antropología no difiere en esencia de la de otras ciencias. Consiste en reproducir, bajo condiciones controladas, un hecho natural previamente observado, con el objetivo de estudiar su causa y efecto. Cuando se considera al hombre inmerso en un ambiente bio-físico-sociocultural, se torna dificultoso establecer patrones de diferenciación debido a la multiplicidad de factores actuantes y sus probables interacciones. En este contexto, surgió la necesidad de incorporar la metodología experimental en los estudios antropológicos. En el presente trabajo se realiza una revisión histórica y actual del empleo del método experimental en Antropología Biológica. Se destacan los trabajos pioneros de Sherwood Washburn y Samuel Detwiler, realizados en anfibios, y los de Melvin Moss, en ratas, para estudiar el crecimiento craneano, entre otros. En Argentina, en particular, se reconoce a Héctor Pucciarelli como el responsable de incorporar dicha metodología en los estudios bioantropológicos en la década de los años 70 y de consolidar un grupo de trabajo y distintas líneas de investigación que continúan su desarrollo en la actualidad.

Palabras clave: antropología biológica; método experimental; Argentina

Experimental methods in Anthropology are not different from those of other sciences. They are used to simulate previously observed natural events under controlled conditions, in order to study their causes and effects. Given that humans are immersed in a biological, physical and socio-cultural environment, establishing differentiation patterns proves more difficult because of the multiplicity of factors involved and their probable interactions. In this context, it became necessary to incorporate the experimental method in anthropological studies. In our study we review the past and present of the experimental method in Biological Anthropology, namely, the pioneering work of Sherwood Washburn and Samuel Detwiler, in amphibians, and that of Melvin Moss, in rats, to study cranial growth. In Argentina, Héctor Pucciarelli is recognized as the first to introduce this methodology in bioanthropological studies in the seventies. He also consolidated a work group and developed different lines of research still in progress today.

Keywords: biological anthropology; experimental method; Argentina

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Publicado
2016-03-14
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Oyhenart, E. E., & Cesani, M. F. (2016). El método experimental en Antropología Biológica. Historia y actualidad en Argentina / The experimental method in Biological Anthropology. History and current status in Argentina. Revista Argentina De Antropología Biológica, 18(1). Recuperado a partir de https://revistas.unlp.edu.ar/raab/article/view/2224
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