Alometrías ontogénicas y dimorfismo sexual facial en dos poblaciones humanas modernas/Ontogenetic allometry and facial sexual dimorphism in two modern human populations

  • Marisol Anzelmo Universidad Nacional de La Plata. Argentina
  • Marina L. Sardi
  • Jimena Barbeito-Andrés
  • Héctor M. Pucciarelli


RESUMEN El dimorfismo sexual facial (DSF) involucra variación en tamaño y forma. Es aceptado que la variación en forma se asocia al tamaño (alometría) y que durante la ontogenia ambos sexos comparten las mismas alometrías y los hombres extienden la trayectoria alométrica, proceso conocido como escalamiento ontogénico. Aquí se analiza el DSF en dos muestras ontogénicas de humanos modernos -portugueses (muestra Coimbra) y africanos de origen bantú (muestra Dart)- para conocer si los sexos comparten trayectorias alométricas. Se relevaron 12 mediciones lineales de la cara. Previo cálculo de la media geométrica (MG) para estimar el tamaño, se estandarizaron para evaluar forma. Para cada muestra se realizó Análisis de Componentes Principales. Por Análisis Multivariado y Univariado dela Covarianza se evaluaron las trayectorias alométricas. Ambos métodos mostraron trayectorias no comunes entre los sexos para ambas muestras. Los primeros indicaron trayectorias diferentes en pendientes para Coimbra, mientras que en Dart las pendientes fueron homogéneas, aunque no la intersección. Los análisis univariados, sin embargo, indicaron que en ambas muestras las trayectorias no difieren en sus pendientes entre los sexos pero si en su intersección para el componente principal 1, siendo paralelas, por lo que habría diferencias sexuales con probable origen prenatal. Otro mecanismo involucra una extensión de la trayectoria masculina con respecto de la femenina. El escalamiento ontogénico también generaría diferencias sexuales. El grado de DSF en tamaño es mayor en Coimbra que en Dart. Dichas diferencias pueden deberse a variaciones poblacionales en los mecanismos de crecimiento y desarrollo.

 ABSTRACT Facial sexual dimorphism (FSD) involves facial variation in size and shape. It is accepted that the shape variation is associated with size (allometry) that during ontogeny both sexes share the same allometric trajectory, and men lengthen the allometric trajectory, process known as ontogenetic scaling.  In this work FSD was analyzed in two ontogenetic modern human samples -Portuguese (Coimbra) and Africans of Bantu origins (Dart)- in order to know if both sexes share the allometric trajectories. Twelve linear measurements were registered on the face. The geometric mean was calculated and measurements were standardized in order to evaluate shape variation. Principal component analysis was performed in each sample. In order to assess if allometric trajectories differ between males and females multivariate and univariate analyses of covariance were performed. Both methods showed no common trajectories between both sexes. In the multivariate analyses Coimbra sample trajectories differs in their slopes, while in Dart sample trajectories are homogeneous in slopes but not in their intercept. However, univariate results indicated that in both samples allometric trajectories do not differ in their slopes between sexes and they are parallel for principal component 1; this may be the consequence of differentiation with probable prenatal origins. Another mechanism involves the lengthening of the male trajectory regarding females. Ontogenetic scaling would generate differences between sexes in both samples. However, the degree of FSD in size is greater inCoimbra than in Dart sample. This difference may be explained by population variation in the mechanism of growth and development.

Publicado on-line:20-08-2012



La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.


Cargando métricas ...


Alexander RD, Hoogland JL, Howard RD, Noonan KL, Sherman PW. 1979. Sexual dimorphism and breeding systems in pinnipeds, ungulates, and humans. En: Chagnon NA, Irons WG, editores. Evolutionary biology and human social behavior: an anthropological perspective. North Scituate: Duxbury Press. p 402-435.

Badyaev A. V. 2002. Growing apart: an ontogenetic perspective on the evolution of sexual size dimorphism. Trends Ecol Evol 17:369-378.

Bastir M. 2008. A systems-model for the morphological analysis of integration and modularity in human craniofacial evolution. J Anthropol Sci 86:37-58.

Bastir M, Godoy P, Rosas A. 2011. Common features of sexual dimorphism in the cranial airways of different human populations. Am J Phys Anthropol 146:414-422.

Berge C, Penin X. 2004. Ontogenetic allometry, heterochrony, and interspecific differences in the skull of the African apes, using tridimensional Procrustes analysis. Am J Phys Anthropol 124:124-138.

Bogin B. 1999. Patterns of human growth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bulygina E, Mitteroecker P, Aiello L. 2006. Ontogeny of facial dimorphism and patterns of individual development within one human population. Am J Phys Anthropol 131:432-443.

Cameron N. 2002. Human growth and development. California: Academic Press.

Canalis E. 1993. Regulation of bone remodelling. En: Favus M, editor. Primer on metabolic bone diseases and disorders of mineral metabolism. Nueva York: Rave Press. p 33-37.

Cardini A, Thorington Jr RW. 2006. Postnatal ontogeny of the marmot (Rodentia, Sciuridae) cranium: allometric trajectories and species divergence. Journal of Mammalogy 87:201-216.

Cavalli-Sforza LL, Piazza A, Menozzi P, Mountain J. 1988. Reconstruction of human evolution: bringing together genetic, archaeological, and linguistic data. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 85:6002-6006.

Cheverud JM, Richtsmeier JT. 1986. Finite-element scaling applied to sexual dimorphism in rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) facial growth. Syst Zool 35:381-399.

Cobb SN, O´Higgins P. 2007. The ontogeny of sexual dimorphism in the facial skeleton of the African apes. J Hum Evol 53:176-190.

Cochard LR. 1985. Ontogenetic allometry of the skull and dentition of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). En: Jungers WL, editor. Size and scaling in primate biology. Nueva York: Plenum Press. p 231-256.

Coqueugniot H, Weaver TD. 2007. Brief communication: Infracranial maturation in the skeletal collection from Coimbra, Portugal: New aging standards for epiphyseal union. Am J Phys Anthropol 134:424-437.

Cunha E. 1995. Testing identification records: evidence from the Coimbra identified skeletal collections (19th20th centuries). En: Saunders SR, Herring A, editores. Grave reflections portraying the past through cemetery studies. Toronto: Canadian Scholars Press. p 179-198.

Dayal MR, Kegley ADT, Strkalj G, Bidmos MA, Kuykendall KL. 2009. The history and composition of the Raymond A. Dart Collection of human skeletons at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. Am J Phys Anthropol 140:324-335.

Enlow DH. 1975. Handbook of facial growth. Philadelphia: WB Saunders.

Enlow DH, Hans MG. 1996. Essentials of facial growth. Philadelphia: WB Saunders.

Franklin D, Freedman L, Milne N. 2005a. Sexual dimorphism and discriminant function sexing in indigenous South African crania. HOMO 55:213-228.

Franklin D, Freedman L, Milne N. 2005b. Three-dimensional technology for linear morphological studies: a reexamination of cranial variation in four southern African indigenous populations. HOMO 56:17-34.

Franklin D, Oxnard CE, O’Higgins P, Dadour I. 2007. Sexual dimorphism in the subadult mandible: quantification using geometric morphometrics. J Forensic Sci 52:6-10.

Frayer DW, Wolpoff MH. 1985. Sexual dimorphism. Annu Rev Anthropol 14:429-473.

Frelat MA, Mitteroecker M. 2011. Postnatal ontogeny of tibia and femur form in two human populations: a multivariate morphometric analysis. Am J Hum Biol 23:796-804.

Frost H. 1964. The laws of bone structure. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.

González PN, Bernal V, Perez SI. 2009. Analysis of sexual dimorphism of craniofacial traits using geometric morphometric techniques. Int J Osteoarchaeol 21:82-91.

González PN, Perez SI, Bernal V. 2010. Ontogeny of robusticity of craniofacial traits in modern humans: a study of South American populations. Am J Phys Anthropol 142:367-379.

Gould SJ. 1966. Allometry and size in ontogeny and phylogeny. Biol Rev 41:587-640.

Humphrey LT. 1998. Growth patterns in the modern human skeleton. Am J Phys Anthropol 105:57-72.

Jungers WL, Falsetti AB, Wall CE. 1995. Shape, relative size, and size-adjustments in morphometrics. Am J Phys Anthropol 38:137-161.

Klingenberg CP. 1998. Heterochrony and allometry: the analysis of evolutionary change in ontogeny. Biol Rev 73:79-123.

Leigh SR, Cheverud JM. 1991. Sexual dimorphism in the baboon facial skeleton. Am J Phys Anthropol 84:193-208.

Lieberman DE, Carlo J, Ponce de Leon M, Zollikofer CP. 2007. A geometric morphometric analysis of heterochrony in the cranium of chimpanzees and bonobos. J Hum Evol 52:647-662.

Mitteroecker P, Bookstein F. 2008. The evolutionary role of modularity and integration in the hominoid cranium. Evolution 62:943-958.

Mitteroecker P, Gunz P, Bookstein FL. 2005. Heterochrony and geometric morphometrics: a comparison of cranial growth in Pan paniscus versus Pan troglodytes. Evol Dev 7:244-258.

Mosimann JE. 1970. Size allometry: size and shape variables with characterizations of the lognormal and generalized gamma distributions. J Am Stat Assoc 65:930-945.

Moss ML. 1973. A functional cranial analysis of primate craniofacial growth. Symposium IVth. International Congress of Primatology 3:191-208.

Moss ML, Young RW. 1960. A functional approach to craniology. Am J Phys Anthropol 18:281-292.

Neubauer S, Gunz P, Hublin JJ. 2009. The pattern of endocranial ontogenetic shape changes in humans. J Anat 215: 240-255.

O´Higgins P, Collard M. 2002. Sexual dimorphism and facial growth in papionin monkeys. J Zool Lond 257:255-272.

O´Higgins P, Jones N. 1998. Facial growth in Cercocebus torquatus: an application of three-dimensional geometric morphometric techniques to the study of morphological variation. J Anat 193:251-272.

O´Higgins P, Strand-Vidarsdóttir U. 1999. New approaches to the quantitative analysis of craniofacial growth and variation. En: Hoppa RD, FitzGerald CM, editores. Human growth in the past: studies from bones and teeth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p 128-160.

O´Higgins P, Moore WJ, Johnson DR, McAndrew TJ, Flinn RM. 1990. Patterns of cranial sexual dimorphism in certain groups of extant hominoids. J Zool Lond 222:399-420.

Oyhenart EE, Pucciarelli HM. 1992. Sexual cranial dimorphism in malnourished rats treated with growth hormone. Growth, Development & Aging 56:179-184.

Patriquin ML, Loth SR, Steyn M. 2003. Sexually dimorphic pelvic morphology in South African whites and blacks. HOMO 53:255-262.

Plavcan JM. 2001. Sexual dimorphism in primate evolution. Am J Phys Anthropol 116:25-53.

Polanski JM, Franciscus RG. 2006. Patterns of craniofacial integration in extant Homo, Pan, and Gorilla. Am J Phys Anthropol 131:38-49.

Pucciarelli HM. 1980. The effect of race, sex and nutrition on craniofacial differentiation in rats. A multivariate analysis. Am J Phys Anthropol 53:359-368.

Pucciarelli HM. 1981. Growth of the functional components of the rat skull and its alteration by nutritional effects. A multivariate analysis. Am J Phys Anthropol 56:33-41.

Quinn GP, Keough MJ. 2001. Experimental design and data analysis for biologists. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ramírez-Yañez GO, Smid JR, Young WG, Waters MJ. 2005. Influence of growth hormone on the craniofacial complex of transgenic mice. European Journal of Orthodontics 27:494-500.

Ravosa MJ. 1991. The ontogeny of cranial sexual dimorphism in two old world monkeys: Macaca fascicularis (Cercopithecinae) and Nasalis larvatus (Colobinae). Int J Primatol 12:403-426.

Rocha MA. 1995. Les collections ostéologiques humaines identifiées du Musée Anthropologique de l’Université de Coimbra. Antrop Port 13:7-38.

Rosas A, Bastir M. 2002. Thin-plate spline analysis of allometry and sexual dimorphism in the human craniofacial complex. Am J Phys Anthropol 117:236-245.

Sanchez-Cardenas C, Fontanaud P, He Z, Lafont C, Meunier A-C, Schaeffer M, Carmignac D, Molino F, Coutry N, Bonnefont X, Gouty-Colomer L-A, Gavois E, Hodson DJ, Le Tissier P, Robinson I, Mollard P. 2010. Pituitary growth hormone network responses are sexually dimorphic and regulated by gonadal steroids in adulthood. PNAS 107:21878-21883.

Santos AL. 1995. Death, sex, and nutrition: analysis of the cause of death in the Coimbra human skeletal collection. Antrop Port 13:81-91.

Sardi ML, Ramírez Rozzi FV. 2012. Different cranial ontogeny in Europeans and Southern Africans. PlosOne 10.1371/journal.pone.0035917

Sardi ML, Novellino PS, Pucciarelli HM. 2006. Craniofacial morphology in the Argentine Center-West: consequences of the transition to food production. Am J Phys Anthropol 130:333-343.

Sardi ML, Ventrice F, Ramírez Rozzi F. 2007. Allometries throughout the late prenatal and early postnatal human craniofacial ontogeny. Anat Rec 290:1112-1120.Schaefer K, Mitteroecker P, Gunz P, Bernhard M, Bookstein F. 2004. Craniofacial sexual dimorphism patterns and allometry among extant hominids. Ann Anat 186:471-478.

Shea BT. 1983. Allometry and heterochrony in the African apes. Am J Phys Anthropol 62:275-289.

Shea BT. 1986. Ontogenetic approaches to sexual dimorphism in anthropoids. Human Evol 1:97-110.

Shea BT. 1992. Developmental perspective on size change and allometry in evolution. Evolutionary Anthropology 1:125-134.

Simmons KE. 1999. Growth hormone and craniofacial changes: preliminary data from studies in Turner’s syndrome. Pediatrics 104:1021-1024.

Steyn M, Isçan MY. 1999. Osteometric variation in the humerus: sexual dimorphism in South Afriacans. Forensic Science International 106:77-85.

Stini WA. 1969. Nutritional stress and growth: sex difference in adaptive response. Am J Phys Anthropol 31:417-426.

Strand-Vidarsdóttir U, O´Higgins P. 2001. Development of sexual dimorphism in the facial skeleton of anatomically modern Homo sapiens. Am J Phys Anthropol 114:139-152.

Strand-Vidarsdóttir U, O´Higgins P, Stringer C. 2002. A geometric morphometric study of regional differences in the ontogeny of the modern human facial skeleton. J Anat 201:211-229.

Tobias PV. 1987. Memories of Robert James Terry (1871-1966) and the genesis of the Terry and Dart collections of human skeletons. Adler Mus Bull 13:31-34.

Uytterschaut HT. 1986. Sexual dimorphism in human skulls. A comparison of sexual dimorphism in different populations. En: Pickford M, Chiarelli B, editores. Sexual dimorphism in living and fossil primates. Firenze: II Sedicesimo. p 193-220.

Wood CG, Lynch JM. 1996. Sexual dimorphism in the craniofacial skeleton of modern human. En: Marcus LF, Corti M, Loy A, Naylor GJP, Slice DE, editores. Advances in morphometrics. Nueva York: Plenum Press. p 407-414.

Wood BA, Li Y, Willoughby C. 1991. Intraespecific variation and sexual dimorphism in cranial and dental variables among higher primates and their bearing on the hominid fossil record. J Anat 174:185-205.
Cómo citar
Anzelmo, M., Sardi, M. L., Barbeito-Andrés, J., & Pucciarelli, H. M. (2012). Alometrías ontogénicas y dimorfismo sexual facial en dos poblaciones humanas modernas/Ontogenetic allometry and facial sexual dimorphism in two modern human populations. Revista Argentina De Antropología Biológica, 14(1), 89-100. Recuperado a partir de
Trabajos Originales

Artículos más leídos del mismo autor/a

> >>