Envejecimiento, pérdida dentaria y cambios craneofaciales/Aging, tooth loss and craneofacial changes

  • Marina L. Sardi
  • Marisol Anzelmo
  • Jimena Barbeito-Andrés
  • Héctor M. Pucciarelli

Resumen

RESUMEN Los cambios craneofaciales resultantes del envejecimiento se atribuyen principalmente a la pérdida dentaria, no habiendo modificaciones en otras estructuras craneanas. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar dichos cambios en distintos componentes craneofaciales, probándose la hipótesis que indica que, luego de alcanzada la adultez, solo hay cambios morfológicos localizados resultantes de la pérdida dentaria. Se tomaron medidas neurales y faciales en 70 individuos de origen francés con edades entre 22 y 102 años. Se registró el estado de la dentición, clasificándolos en tres grupos, como: ausencia total de dientes (ATD), ausencia parcial de dientes (APD) y dentición completa (DC). Se realizó Análisis de Componentes Principales y ANCOVA a fin de evaluar el cambio morfológico según la edad y el estado dentario. Los resultados indicaron que con la edad hay una disminución de tamaño craneofacial en todas las medidas, aún en estructuras no directamente implicadas en el soporte dentario; sin embargo, los individuos de mayor edad muestran también mayor pérdida dentaria. Ajustada para la edad, la única reducción asociada al estado de la dentición se evidencia en el ancho y la longitud alveolares, el ancho masticatorio y la altura facial. Aunque el patrón de variación podría relacionarse con la pérdida dentaria, no es independiente de otros procesos biológicos. Los individuos que carecen completamente de dientes presentarían cambios acumulativos con la edad, debido a que la menor cantidad de dientes influye en el tipo de nutrición y en consecuencia, en el complejo craneofacial. Por lo tanto, la hipótesis propuesta se rechaza.

 

ABSTRACT Craniofacial modifications, which come about with aging, are usually attributed to tooth loss, and it is accepted that other skull structures remain unchanged. The purpose of the study was to analyze morphological changes in different craniofacial components. The hypothesis to be tested states that once adulthood is reached, craniofacial changes are localised and only associated with tooth loss. Neural and facial measurements were taken on 70 French individuals aged between 22 and 102 years. Dental state was assessed and individuals were divided into three categories: total absence of tooth (ATD), partial absence of tooth (APD) and complete dentition (DC). Principal Components Analyses and ANCOVA were carried out to evaluate morphological change related to age and dental state. The results indicated that there was a decrease of craniofacial size in all the measurements including those that described structures that were unrelated to dental support although older individuals showed also a remarkable tooth loss. When age was adjusted, the only reductions associated with dental state were found in alveolar width and length, masticatory width and facial height. Although this pattern of variation could be related to tooth loss, it may depend on several biological changes with aging. Tooth loss and aging are two linked biologica processes since individuals that lack tooth completely may present accumulative changes with age because the reduced number of tooth influences on the kind of nutrition and, thus, on the craniofacial complex. Therefore, the stated hypothesis was rejected

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Cómo citar
Sardi, M. L., Anzelmo, M., Barbeito-Andrés, J., & Pucciarelli, H. M. (1). Envejecimiento, pérdida dentaria y cambios craneofaciales/Aging, tooth loss and craneofacial changes. Revista Argentina De Antropología Biológica, 13(1), 61-69. Recuperado a partir de https://revistas.unlp.edu.ar/raab/article/view/392
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